The gravitational potential is the local propagation velocity of the Aether. The presence of matter increases local Aether density which slows the propagation velocity. The effect diminishes with inverse distance from the source mass. The effect on light is identical to the predictions of GR except the speed of light can never go to zero. These same effects act on a fundamental mass particle causing it to accelerate at one half the rate of a tangential light ray at the same point in Space.
Newton's theory of Gravity
Newton's theory of gravity demonstrated that every matter body, however large or small, creates a gravitational field extending out to infinity. The accelerating strength of the field is proportional to the mass of the source body and the inverse square of distance from the source.
But Newton's theory does not explain:-
- the effects of gravity upon a light ray (in this paper light is used as an example of radiation of any frequency).
- how a massive body causes a gravitational field.
- how a gravitational field transmits from the source through Space.
- what supports the field in Space.
- how a gravitational field causes the acceleration of matter.
Einstein's theory of Gravity
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity gives an explanation of the affect of a gravitational field upon a light ray. The theory proposes that a massive source body warps the dimensions of Space surrounding that body. The change in the three distance dimensions modifies the velocity of light such that it slows close to a massive body.
By introducing the additional dimension of Time the theory also provides an explanation of the gravitational acceleration of matter.
But Einstein's theory does not explain:-
- why and how Time is a dimension.
- how Space can be simultaneously of three and of four dimensions.
- how a massive body causes the warping of Space.
- exactly what is being warped.
- how the warping of Space transmits from the source throughout Space.
The Aether theory of Gravity
The theory states that the physical embodiment of the phenomenon of gravity lies in the local propagation velocity of the Aether as the gravitational potential.
The propagation velocity of the Aether is postulated to be c2 = C/ρ (an identical form to that of matter).
C is the internal 'pressure' and ρ the aethon density (see the properties of the Aether in the The Electric Field in Aether Physics It is postulated that matter constantly generates new aethons thus increasing the local aethon density which diminishes with inverse distance from the matter body.
Hence, according to the propagation velocity equation, light slows on approaching a matter body.
Consequently the speed of light varies spatially notwithstanding that we are taught that it is a universal constant. The observed gravitational redshift, caused by the slower speed of light close to a massive body, amply demonstrates that the speed of light is not universally constant.
Thus the gravitational potential field is physically supported by the Aether.
Separately sourced fields necessarily over-lap and super-position upon each other at all points. Consequently the ambient gravitational field at each point in Space is the super-position of the individual fields of every matter body in the whole Universe--inversely diminished by distance and time delayed by the speed of light over that distance.
Cosmic redshift (see the paper Redshift) has an additional effect on the graviational field.
The behaviour of light
As stated above light moves slower the closer to a massive source.
Thus for light moving tangentially to the source, that part of the width of the beam nearest the source moves slower than that part furthest from the source. Consequently the beam continuously bends towards the source. The effect is identical to refraction.
This bending is the equivalent of an acceleration of the beam towards the source. The degree of this acceleration may be calculated to be proportional to the ambient potential gradient and is determined, for a totally tangential ray, to be twice the rate of a matter body positioned at the same point in Space.
The slowing of light at the surface of the Sun is only 4 parts in a million relative to that at Earth's orbit. This small effect nevertheless causes an acceleration (of light) at the Sun's surface of 56g.
The Aether theory predicts identical effects upon light to the General Theory of Relativity, except when close to very dense bodies.
This exception is of considerable importance.
The action of the gravitational field on matterThe theory accepts that the mechanism which acts upon light also causes the acceleration of matter.
In order to understand the action of the gravitational potential field on matter it is necessary to have some insight into the internal structure of fundamental mass particles (FMPs)--for the local ambient potential must somehow act upon the internal mechanism.
This insight can be obtained from the paper Matter in Aether Physics. The paper proposes that the Aether velocity of an FMP is determined by the specific geometric structure of the FMP.
It is postulated in the paper that an FMP is constructed of localised rotating electric potentials moving at the local speed of light. The paths of these rotating potentials move in a geometry which translates a certain fraction of the rotation velocity into velocity in a specific direction. Thus the FMP effectively screws its way through the Aether. The degree of screw geometry determines the Aether velocity of the FMP.
The local ambient potential gradient bends these paths just as it bends a light ray and in so doing modifies the degree of screw geometry.
Now the directions of the internal paths may be theoretically broken down into components either in line with or orthogonal to the ambient gradient. For spherically rotating paths these components will be of equal length and duration. As the ambient gradient bends only the orthogonal paths the gradient modifies the FMP geometry for only one half the time. This might be the reason why matter accelerates at one half the rate of light at the same point in Space.
The Aether Theory of Gravity acknowledges that the exact internal mechanism and geometry of an FMP is not known. Thus the action of gravity, and also of electric fields, upon matter cannot at present be fully explained.
How Matter cause a Gravitational Field
It is postulated that matter generates an increased Aethon density ρm within itself.
Thus the internal speed of light is given by
It may be calculated that the increase in Aethon density diminishes with inverse distance in a similar manner to the electric potential.
Thus , where c is the speed of light at an infinite distance.
It can be seen that, no matter how large the matter effect ρm, the propagation velocity can never reach zero.
This is important as it precludes such ideas as event horizons and Black Holes.
We may take ρm/ρinf to be Am where m is the gravitational radius of the source body and A = 2 (light accelerates at twice the rate of matter).The increased aethon density within mass is postulated to derive from the continuous creation of new aethons at a rate proportional to the amount of mass.
Thus the gravitational potential for small values of m/r (such as obtained at the surface of normal star).
ConclusionThe gravitational potential is a fundamental characteristic of the Aether. No special mediating particles are required. The gradient of the potential is shown to accelerate both light and matter. The effect on matter is credible but does not have a complete explanation. The Aether theory is more explanatory than competitor theories. The theory does not make incredible predictions such as light slowing to zero velocity.