The Hubble redshift is currently explained by an expansion of Space distance based on an assumption that the rate of passage of time is constant. This assumption cannot be made. Hence it cannot be said that Space is expanding. We can only say that the ratio of distance to time (the speed of light) is increasing over time. Modified Newtonian gravity in the outer regions of galaxies is explained.
The light generated by a star covers a wide band of frequencies from the infra-red through visible light to the ultra-violet. By passing the light beam through a prism or diffraction grating the amplitude of the light at any particular frequency within the band can be determined. It was discoverd by Frauenhofer that certain very specific frequencies are absent from the spectrum. These frequencies are generated by the star but are absorbed by elements (mainly hydrogen and helium) present in the upper atmospere of the star at frequencies specific to the element. These frequencies (shown as dark lines in the spectrum) are known as absorption lines.
It was observed by Edwin Hubble and others that, most unexpectedly, the wavelength of the absorption lines of certain stars was shifted (altered in wavelength) either towards the red or the blue end of the visible spectrum.
The obvious cause of this shift was the Doppler effect. The Doppler effect causes the emitted frequency to be shifted, at the observer, when the emitting body is moving at velocity relative to the observer. When the body moves away from the observer the observed wavelength is increased (redshift) and on appoaching the observed wavelength it is shortened (blueshift). For stars close to Earth both redshift and blueshift were observed--indicating that some stars were moving away from Earth and some towards Earth. However Hubble discovered that the greater the distance to the star the more predominant the redshift. In fact he discovered a direct relationship between distance and the degree of redshift.
It seemed as though there were two separate effects working together. One resulting from relatively low velocities in random directions and the second, called Hubble redshift, in proportion to star distance and indicating very high recession velocities.
The modern physics explanation states that Space itself is expanding everywhere at a constant rate. This is called Hubble expansion.
Thus the greater the distance between any two points in Space the faster they move away from each other.
A galaxy recedes at high velocity because the Space that it inhabits recedes at high velocity.
Within this theory the Hubble redshift may either be considered a Doppler effect or that the wavelength of the emitted light expands over its journey time.
Consider the redshift of a particular absorption line; the alpha line of the hydrogen series.
We know from studying the hydrogen atom on Earth that the alpha line has a wavelength of 656.281 nm.
In coming to the conclusion that Space is expanding Modern Physics makes the unwarranted assumption that the starlight was originally emitted at exactly this wavelength and frequency billions of years ago.
Thus Modern physics assumes that the rate of passage of time was identical billions of years ago as it is today. This assumption cannot be made!
The Hubble redshift observations equally result from Space distance remaining constant while Time constantly runs at a faster rate.
What we can say is that the ratio of distance to time (the speed of light) is constantly increasing over time.
On the basis that the speed of light increases over time the difference between the apparent and absolute magnitudes (m - M) (see the book Aether Theory) is calculated to be:-
The luminosity distance, dL, is given by dL = cZ/H0 which is also identical to current empoyment.
The luminosity distance is equal to other measures of distance such as the parallax measure but only at low values of redshift.
At high values of redshift the concept of distance becomes meaningless.
An important consequence of Aether theory is that the Big Bang start of the Universe did not occur simply because we cannot say that Space expansion occurs.
As the propagation velocity of the Aether is the gravitational potential it follows that the gravitational potential is constantly decreasing with time
(for convenience the gravitational potential is taken to be high close to matter).
Thus as distance increases from a gravitating body (going forward in time) the ambient gravitational potential diminishes in addition to the inverse distance effect of the field.
The increased acceleration on matter due to this effect is Hc/2 where H is Hubbles constant.
This effect is only of significance when the field levels are very low such as at great distances from the gravitating body.
This is the reason for the observed increase in orbital velocity of stars in the outer regions of galaxies.
Modern Physics wrongly credits this effect to the presence of Dark Matter the existence of which has not been corroborated by other evidence.