# The Aether Theory of Relativity

### Abstract

The Aether Theory of Relativity derives directly from the Lorentz Transform equations. Its predictions are identical to Special Relativity (SR) for theoretical inertial bodies to which SR is limited by its postulates. The Aether theory applies to real bodies accelerating to any degree. The theory correctly predicts the observations of either body of the other in the Twins Paradox experiment.
(Note:- Relativity refers to the effects observed on a body as functions of its velocity through the personal Space (IRF) of the observer.)

### Why Special Relativity fails

It is a basic principle of science that a theory may not be applied to circumstances beyond the requirement of its postulates.
The postulates of SR specify inertial frames, thus SR can only be applied to inertial bodies.
An inertial body is one which has absolutely zero acceleration. Zero acceleration is like Absolute Zero Temperature; the nearer you get to it the harder it is to advance further.
Hence neither zero temperature nor zero acceleration can be reached.
So as inertial bodies do not exist in the Universe SR is a pointless theory.

Nevertheless, and despite this irrefutable logic, physicists continue to argue that SR can be applied to bodies of low acceleration.
However, this assertion is not relevant as it is a question of principle rather than of degree.
Even so, bodies must exist with accelerations greater than considered acceptable to SR--in which case a new theory of velocity effects is required for these bodies. If that new theory also applies to bodies of low as well as high acceleration--as well it might--then SR becomes redundant as well as inapplicable. The Aether Theory of Relativity meets these requirements.

Altough physicists maintain that SR successfully predicts the observation of bodies with low acceleration their assertion is not always true.
For example in the Hafele-Keating experiment two identical clocks separated and then took two different journeys. They eventually re-united and were found to differ in their readings. One clock read the other to be slow and, naturally the second clock read the first to be FAST. Thus the second clock observes time contraction.
SR cannot predict time contraction.

Furtherdifficulties with SR are:-

1. SR assumes that Time is a dimension.Time is not a dimension (see Matter in Aether Physics).
2. SR assumes incorrectly that time and distance in Space operate identically in matter.They do not.
3. The concept of an infinity of infinite overlapping IRFs as the structure of Space is not credible.

## GB/GA = Gr(1 + vrxvA/c2)

The equation above is a standard Lorentz Transform equation which refers to a body B (not necessarily inertial) moving through two inertial reference frames (IRF)--in the one case, the physical Aether at velocity vB and also through a theoretical IRF at velocity vr. Velocites vB and vr are instantaneous values which may be from zero to just below the speed of light. The theoretical IRF attached to observer body A, moves relative to the Aether at velocity vA. Both vA and vB are unknown, but vr can be determined.
The factor G is the Lorentz function, 1/sqrt(1 - v2/c2) (the velocity concerned is determined by the suffix). Both observer A and body B experience real (ie. independent of observation) length contraction, time dilation and mass increase all as Lorentz functions, GA and GB, of their Aether velocity (see explanation below).

Now A requires to observe the length, time unit or mass of body B over the separation distance and at relative velocity vr (see below for the observation mechanism). If, for example, he observes the time unit he can only make sense of it if he compares it to his own time unit--which he must take as his standard. Thus he measures the ratio of the two time units (or length or mass units). Now these characteristics are varied by their Lorentz functions, so the observed ratio is the ratio of the two Lorentz functions, GB/GA, --which is the LH side of the above equation.

## Gr(1 + vrxvA/c2)

The factor vrxvA/c2 is called the velocity factor (VF). Velocity vrx is that component of velocity vr which lies in the direction of vA.

### Observations across the Aether

Observations by one body of another are necessarily made over an unknown separation distance and at a relative velocity. It may be determined that the length, time unit or mass of a body can be calculated if two observations are made separated by a known time interval. Each observation must be made by an emission by the observer at the speed of light which reflects off the observed body and returns with the required information to the observer. The outward light travel time delays the reading and must be allowed for.This time is assumed to be one half of the known out and return time. But this assumption is in error, due to the Aether velocityof the observer, by an amount of similar form to the VF factor.
If the observer moves within his own IRF in between these two observations, ie. he is not inertial, then velocity vA changes and the VF changes.
The vector difference between two VFs can be shown to be Vd2/c2 for v small relative to c. Vd is the change in velocity of the observer, ie. his velocity at obs.2 through the IRF existing at obs.1.

## Gr(1 + Vd2/c2)

This factor applies to length, time, mass and many other derived characteristics.

When Vd is zero, ie. for inertial observers, the prediction of the theory is simply Gr, which is identical to the function predicted by Special Relativity. Thus:-

For inertial bodies Aether Relativity and Special Relativity are identical
Except that in Aether theory the observed body B is not required to be inertial
--as it by the postulates of SR.

The Aether theory needs to make just one assumption to arrive at this result:- that the Lorentz Transform equations apply to material bodies and potential fields as functions of absolute Aether velocity. (however the Transforms act only in one direction---from the Aether to an IRF.)
This assumption does not actually need to be made as the Lorentz Transform equations are readily generated from the simple properties of the Aether (see The Electric Field in Aether Physics and the book Aether Theory, the pdf is found on Aether-theory)
The Lorentz Transforms are shown to apply to the electric and gravitational fields and also to bulk matter.

### Accelerating observers and the Twins Paradox

Expanding the inverse of the Aether Relativity equation for low values of vr/c and Vd/c and multiplying by the time T in between observations gives a prediction of (T - d1vr/2c2 - d2Vd/c2) for the measurement of that time period by the observed body. Thus highly accelerating observers may experience very different effects to an inertial observer.
For example, in the theoretical Twins Paradox experiment the travelling clock B changes velocity by -2vr and then travels over the return distance d2 = d1/2 at that velocity. The total distance travelled by clock B is d1 over time T.
Thus the reading of the inertial clock A by B at reunion is predicted to be (T - dvr/2c2 + dvr/c2) = (T + dvr/2c2).
So clock A is predicted to run fast by the travelling clock--which is observed in experiments of this nature.
Hence Aether theory also predicts time contraction--which SR cannot do.

### Conclusion

Special Relativity is a theory with no relevance to the real Universe where-as Aether Relativity is applicable to real bodies accelerating to any degree.